Have you guys seen the new TED clip about the history of Arts & Craft?
I’ve recently been doing some programming for a Company HobbiesOnTheWebb.co.uk and I found out that there was SO many distinctions and sub categories of arts and crafts, crazy amounts! I recommend hobbyists out there check out the site. They actually stock a lot of books/DVDs cheaper than Amazon.
This post shows three examples of full spectrum mapping methods for multispectral photography. I’ve used some quick shots I took inbetween rain clouds so I apologise for the poor quality – especially the infrared image. All shots taken on a converted D70.
Infrared (720nm filter)
Visible light (Hoya cut filter)
Ultraviolet (Baader-U filter)
The only map I see often is the classic3to3 map. The characteristics are so that vegetation stands out in a very prominent red, nectar guides are clear cut and clear skies are a strong blue. The next map is weighted, roughly, 5to3 on the proportionalspectrum each [I,R,G,B,U] component covers as wavelengths. The output shows the nectar guide enough for it to be noticeable, but clearly less so. The last map is my favourite so far, it is a 5to3 map that distributes the [I,R,G,B,U] in equalproportions. It dulls the bright red vegetation caused by infrared in the red channel and shows the nectar guide a little better than the previous map.
Channels & Output
R: (IR + IR + (IR * 0.33)) * 0.42
G: ((IR * 0.66) + R + (G * 0.66)) * 0.42
B: (UV + B + (G * 0.33)) * 0.42
This post is to show one of the features of WavelengthPro, some photography software I’m writing at the moment. It’s in early stages at the moment, it’s nothing as technical as Infracrome’s Transformation software (which really is awesome), I hope to add a lot more.
Channel Map Templates
I plan on having a basic and advanced way of mixing channels, so far I’ve done the basic version where you choose template maps. The advanced version will use percent sliders of every channel for every channel just like in Photoshop or GIMP etc. Below is a table showing the three starting images (all taken on a full-spec D70 using 720nm, Hoya UV/IR cut and Baader-U filters) and some of the possible mixtures using the program.
I have a few programmers, logicians and AI enthusiasts that follow my blog so I wanted to see if I could make something of the concept. I’d like to see all your interpretations of what a Conway creature is. Given a rough description, which is essentially: creatures (2D,3D, etc) of which the properties are evolved in some way using a mix of CA and GAs. If I get any i’ll do posts dedicated to the entries. I would also like to see varied definitions of the concept such as the use of other works by John Conway (e.g., the growth rate of the Look and Say sequence – Conway’s Constant, the Surreal Numbers, Conway notation for polyhedra, etc), other CA rules and other Evolutionary methods.
The First Detour – Longevity in Game of Life: I began to write the program and found myself wondering “What are the characteristics of longevity in CAs?” and I’m still not sure. I’ve been trying different takes on mutation and crossover where I take chunks of the board and flip them or turn them all on/off. It doesn’t seem to make much difference, I was hoping it would conserve locality. I also tried out Boltzmann selection (Simulated Annealing) but tournament selection (dueling) worked much better. Any ideas?
This is my program so far, I am taking a little detour to look into longevity, but in Issue 1 there will be a creature where the 3D terrain is. Probably not very complicated, I was thinking of making the creature some sort of shape, like an octahedron.
For ages I have wanted to do full-spectrum photography, which captures light from Infrared (IR) all the way to ultraviolet (UV), but the UV aspect of it is bloody expensive! DSLR sensors, both CCD and CMOS, capture light slightly outside the visible spectrum (VIS) but use things like hot mirrors and UV filters to narrow the band closer to 390-700nm. The sensors use channeling methods like a Bayer filter to give us the very useful RGB channels, in this post we will work with extra channels for IR and UV.
I am always looking for cheap alternatives for UV and I thought I’d test out a bit of a long shot – using a UV filter to maths my way to a UV image. To do this I bought a daylight simulating bulb that emits UVA (400-315nm) and some flowers from the local gas station. It’s a simple idea, the extra light that the UV filter blocks must be UV light so if we subtract all the other light we are left with UV.
No Filter – UV Filter = UV ResidueI subtracted each colour separately for each pixel: [r1-r2,g1-g2,b1-b2], it was rather red so I used the red channel for the new R,G and B making a brighter grayscaled image (see below). Then I used that new “UV” image along with the colour image to map channels [GBU to RGB] like the images Infrachrome makes using this technique. For infrared and ultraviolet he uses an adapted camera specifically for full-spectrum, infact he uses two in a fantastical and magical set up. Unfortunately mine didn’t work very well, my first guess was that the lower range of blue light being reflected as there is no sign of a nectar guide. But after consulting a pro UV photographer I was told it is due to infrared-leakage.
I thought I’d do a full spectrum map whilst I had the camera set up so I put on a 950nm IR pass filter and took another shot. In the above image the far right is the channel map of the other three.
I have previously talked about Complex Bases but I wanted to look again at Base (-1+i). It’s a really hefty number system so the length of the bit-strings increase very quickly, I’d quite like to know if there is a way to assess Radix Economy for complex and negative bases, so if there are any mathematicians out there who know – Please tell me!
Today I wrote a little C++ program to act on Base 2 arithmetic but convert to decimal as if it was Base (-1+i), this meant I could increment through the bits in an ‘ordered’ fashion. The image to the left is the text output of the program, it doesn’t have a very obvious pattern to it – infact the pattern-order we derive from it is somewhat an imposed one. This is because complex numbers do not have a linear order (or Total Order) and I’m trying to list them in a linear manner. They can, on the other hand, be Well-Ordered in correspondence with the natural numbers like we’re doing here.
If we take the real and imaginary values of each number and use them as the x and y co-ordinates (like I did for generating the Mandlebrot Set fractal) then the fractal “Twindragon” appears:
The program I wrote runs through binary numbers starting at 0 colouring the pixel (x=r, y=i) discretely depending on number length. The result shows all Gaussian integers representable by all possible 16,12 and 8 bit complex binary strings in base (-1+i). The colour mapping relates to the position of the Most Significant Bit (essentially the bitstring length). 0 and 1 are both of length one and are the dark blue in the center of the fractal. The 12-bit and 8-bit fractal maps have been zoomed in on to emphases the self-similarity of the shape.
Colouring the fractals like this is a nice way of showing the distribution of numbers in the complex system but, going back to the math, a number system isn’t useful without arithmetic. Luckily the (-1+i) system is closed under addition, subtraction and multiplication. For addition and multiplication it is the same as normal binary with the difference being in the carry. Below is a table of all possible carry situations:
Division in the systems is rather complex, an explination of that and examples of addition/subtraction/multiplication can be found in a short paper called “Arithmetic in Complex Basis” by William Gilbert. The paper also talks about an equivalent to decimal which is base (-3+i) using the digits [0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9].
All of Ted’s political writings were in code, a code that was never properly cracked by police – but later finding codesheets like this one gave the necessary instructions for decoding.
Known infamously as The Unabomber, Ted was a gifted child. Finding a love for mathematics at a very young age, he went on to get a PhD at Michigan – his thesis on boundary functions was commented on by a member of his dissertation committee saying: “I would guess that maybe 10 or 12 men in the country understood or appreciated it.”, his publications caught the eye of Berkley where he went on to teach. But this great academic life ran parrallel to a social inability, introverted, Ted found solace in himself. As a child he was distant and cold. The only other thing to catch Ted was nature and being outdoors, this would be the basis of his philosophy – personified later when he adopted a survivalist lifestyle in the woods outside of Montana. During his times at Universities he stayed out of all the activism happening at the time showing no signs of strong feelings towards politics.
But then came the attacks and the infamous manifesto…
Kaczynskib believed in a sort of anarcho-primitivism, living for yourself with no technology, and no money. Without a price-system (economy) his view can’t be put into the left-right wing spectrum, but interestingly another system without an economy advocates the opposite – extensive technology use in a collectivist manner:
The Technocracy Technate Design
In short, it is the social movement from the 1930′s related to energy accounting. It’s founders, Howard Scott (engineer) and Marion King Hubbert (geoscientist) created the Technical Alliance which did a range of research projects in energy accounting accross North America. They later founded Technocracy Inc which was where the idea came to fruition. It was popular with the scientifically inclined and thus it’s not suprising that it interested Albeirt Einstien, who met with Technocrats a few times to learn more.
Technocracy, assessing humans as energy consumption machines, aims to balance resources used with the energy cost of making those resources – creating abundance. Also using technology to free the people of the majority of labour and social stresses of competition in a monetary system. So while socialism and free market can be seen as two sides of the same coin, these two can be seen as two sides of the same cog.
Here are a few interesting differences:
Technocracy Study Course
“There is no way of reforming or modifying the system so as to prevent it from depriving people of dignity and autonomy.”
“All philosophic concepts of human equality, democracy, and political economy have upon examination been found totally lacking and unable to contribute any factors of design for a Continental technological control.”
“The system does not and cannot exist to satisfy human needs. Instead, it is human behavior that has to be modified to fit the needs of the system. This has nothing to do with the political or social ideology that may pretend to guide the technological system. It is the fault of technology, because the system is guided not by ideology but by technical necessity.”
(On the rate of production): “While this trend has advanced further in some industries than in others, it is present in all industries, including even the most backwards of them–agriculture. Since the cause for this development, namely, technological improvements, still exists in full force, there can be no doubt that this trend will be continued into the future.”
“Freedom is restricted in part by psychological control of which people are unconscious, and moreover many people’s ideas of what constitutes freedom are governed more by social convention than by their real needs.”
“It APPEARS to be little realized by those who prate about human liberty that social freedom of action is to a much greater extent determined by the industrial system in which the individual finds himself than by all the legalistic restrictions combined.”